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Annotated Bibliography on Leaching Metals
When selecting cookware, one particular area of concern that many individuals overlook is that of potential leaching of metals into food. Nutrient density of food can be easily damaged through overheating. Materials such as aluminum, cast iron and Teflon often play a role in the taste of food due to leaching. Therefore, researchers and scientists have continuously studied the effects of certain metals and their leaching capabilities and in turn discovered that many disorders and diseases that humans develop are a direct result of leaching.
While research has been conducted on the effects of leaching, there has not been a noteworthy amount on cast iron cookware and the effects it has on food. The majority of research performed on the subject has been on aluminum cookware as it is the most commonly used. Due to this factor, an extensive knowledge of what cast iron is how it is used in cookware is essential.
Benefits and drawbacks associated with all types of cookware need to also be gleaned from a variety of articles and postings on the subject. Chemical analysis is an important component within the subject of leaching of metals into food due to the certain reactivity that happens once food mixes with the cookware material and heat is factored into the equation. This in turn, allows researchers, scientists and the regular layperson to better understand what they are eating. It is also essential for the proper preparation of cooked food.
Bassioni, G., Mohammed, F. S., Al Zubaidy, E., Kobrsi, I. (2012, May 1). Risk Assessment of Using Aluminum Foil in Food Preparation. International Journal of Electrochemical Science, 7, 4498 – 4509.
This article focuses on the following three aspects of food and its consumption: weight loss, environmental scanning electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry. An informed understanding of leaching assessment regarding aluminum was completed through the usage of these three methodologies.
Dr. Nancy. (2012, August 21). Leaching Metals and Chemicals from Cooking Surfaces. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from Truth N Health, LLC. website: http://www.truthnhealth.com/2012/08/leaching-metals-and-chemicals-from-cooking-surfaces/.
The article discusses the positives and negatives associated with leaching metals from cooking surfaces. An assessment of each type of metal is determined. The author makes it a point to speak in general and specifics on all metals covered. There is a significant emphasis on Teflon coating, iron and aluminum in the article. While there is no detailed or precise experimentation performed by the author of this article, there is much to be garnered through the facts and knowledge about each of the metals and their leaching capabilities.
Gould, J. H., Butler, S.W., Boyer, K.W., Steele, E.A. (2008, November 21). Hot leaching of ceramic and enameled cookware: collaborative study. Journal – Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 66, 610-9.
The World Health Organization published an article pertaining to a study concerning hot leaching of ceramic and enameled cookware in 1983. In that particular study, scientists from 14 labs collaborated to understanding how heating of ceramic and enameled cookware causes leaching in food. Various temperatures were tested to better understand how hot the cookware has to get before leaching occurs. As 14 different studies were done using many different chemical methods, results were packaged into a report to better quantify the amounts of Pb and Cd and the effects of leaching of cookware. This article is a response and update to the arlier study. Researchers also evaluated types of cookware and their connections to toxicity.
Karbouj, R. (2008, December). A simple pre-treatment of aluminum cookware to minimize aluminium transfer to food. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47, 571–577.
An in-depth analysis was undertaken to analyze the effects of aluminum leaching from cookware to food. The authors show that boiling cookware in water can decrease the amount of leaching. Various pre-treatments are explored in the experiment in an effort to better understand the changes in structure associated with aluminum leaching from cookware to food. The authors note that there is a clear distinction in the types of metabolic processes that aluminum goes through versus others such as iron, magnesium and calcium. An analysis is also given about the ingestion exposure of quantities of aluminum by humans and the diseases that this is often associated with.
Mohammed, A., Khan, A., Nomani, A.A., Ahmed, S. (1997, November 14). Heavy metals: leaching from glazed surfaces of tea mugs. Science of The Total Environment, 207(1), 49–54. doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(97)00244-1.
Experimentation was performed on tea mugs with heated beverages to determine whether there was heavy metal leaching. Concentrations of certain beverages were tested in mugs of metals including cadmium, iron, lead, nickel and manganese). Various temperature ranges were also used to determine the leaching capacity. The beverages used were orange juice and tea.
Mohammed, F. S., Al Zubaidy, E, Bassioni, G. (2011, January 1). Effect of Aluminum Leaching Process of Cooking Wares on Food. International Journal of Electrochemical Science, 6, 222 – 230.
This article describes the intake of aluminum from cooking utensils as being a specific concern to community health. Leaching of aluminum from a variety of aluminum utensils in a myriad of food solutions were tested using two precise analytical methods: weight loss measurement and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Different solutions beginning with water were also examined, as well as different meat extract concentrations.
Rajwanshi, P., Singh, V., Gupta, M.K., Kumari, V., Shrivastav, R., Ramanamurthy, M., Dass, S. (1997, January). Studies on aluminium leaching from cookware in tea and coffee and estimation of aluminium content in toothpaste, baking powder and paan masala. Science of The Total Environment, 193(3), 243-249. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969796053478.
The article assesses the level of aluminum leaching from cookware that were present certain dishes and beverages. Using a sequential study of experimentation, researchers tested the varying amounts of leaching present in tea, coffee, toothpaste, mouth freshener and baking powder to ascertain which of the substances had the highest levels of aluminum. Ingestion patterns within individuals are also discussed in significant detail to better understand the toxicity of leaching in the body.
See, S. W., Balasubramanian, R. (2008, December). Chemical characteristics of fine particles emitted from different gas cooking methods. Atmospheric Environment, 42(39), 8852–8862. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.09.01.
Is there a difference in the types of cooking methods and the amount of metal leaching that can occur? The authors of this article experiment with gas cooking to investigate whether certain cooking methods impact the amount of metal leaching on cooking utensils and in food. Specific chemical constituents and their respective concentrations are measured in a controlled atmosphere. The scientists analyze boiling, pan-frying, stir-frying and steaming to understand whether gas cooking makes a difference in metal leaching.
Silicone Tally: How Hazardous Is the New Post-Teflon Rubberized Cookware. (2010, May 5). Scientific American. Retrieved from http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=earth-talk-silicone-tally.
The article considers the health hazards associated with the usage of silicone bake ware and cooking utensils. The article notes that per the Food and Drug Administration and Canada’s health agency, Health Canada, regulations have stated that food-grade silicone does not react with food or beverages or produce hazardous fumes as a long as items are used at recommended temperatures. Studies have concluded for the most part that silicone is non-toxic; however, definitive research has to be conducted in order to ascertain whether or not there are harmful elements associated with leaching into cooked foods.
Smith, E. (2007, September). Choosing Healthy Cookware. The Educated Vegetable, 2. Retrieved from http://www.educatedvegetable.com/newsletter_9_07.pdf
This article summarizes the healthiest types of cookware and do not react with food or have a nominal amount of impact with food. Through careful analysis, Smith points out that certain factors should go into a cookware decision to ensure that there is minimal amount of leaching. To provide the reader with a better understanding of reactivity of cookware with food, Smith discusses the extent to which certain types of materials and metals are important in cookware selection. Describing the best and optimum choices, readers can gather a significant amount of information from his recommendations and make the best decision accordingly.
Stellpflug, C. (2012, May 31). Is your cookware killing you? Retrieved February 18, 2013, from Natural News Network website: http://www.naturalnews.com/036029_cookware_non-stick_chemicals.html.
Stellpflug discusses the influence of cookware leaching on our health. Comparing the various types of cookware, the article mentions early studies on blood toxicity levels and the many diseases and illnesses that individuals have been diagnosed with that scientists can point to leaching of cookware as a result. The article goes on to point out that high temperatures should be used to minimize risks of disease and disorders as a result of leaching of cookware.
Verissimo, M.I.S., Olivera, J.A.B.P., Gomes, M. T. (2006, October 25). Leaching of aluminum from cooking pans and food containers. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 118(1-2), 92–197. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925400506002899.
While aluminum is not an essential element in the body, the toxicity levels of aluminum can be studied via commonly used cooking ware and utensils. Researchers can quantify the amount of metal leaching in certain recipes based on samples of cooked items with acidic additives placed on them. These samples are then understood through a variety of result mechanisms that help researchers better understand how toxic aluminum leaching is to the body. The article describes in detail the processes by which red cabbage samples were used with three different additives to understand the effects of leaching in the body. The results were analyzed and gave scientists a more accurate view of the significance of aluminum leaching.