This sample MLA paper from Ultius compares and contrasts the theories of neoliberalism and neorealism (structural realism) to determine which one better promotes equality. This public relations essay compares the advantages and disadvantages of both ideologies. At the end of this essay, you will know which ideology best promotes equality.
Neoliberalism Versus Structural Realism: Which Offers Equality
In a fast-paced world where much of the global market system is controlled within its boundaries and borders of the respective country, two ideologies that pervade the economic world are in direct conflict of one another. Yet, even with the present knowledge of the differences, there are so many variations in each definition that the promotion of either ideology is often confusing. For a prominence in global business with the occurrence of urbanization and industrialization, both the dogma of structural realism and neoliberalism are often used to explain the stance many in society take on perspectives and implications for the decision made. The two, structural realism and neoliberalism both presuppose several facets in their philosophy; philosophies which are inclusive to their policy implications and assumptions, yet their beliefs are completed polar opposites on the spectrum of global economics.
While both beliefs have developed from the effects that come from international systems, and both agree that the international system is anarchic (Baylis, Smith, and Owens 190), the definitions and the foundations of the respective belief systems for each are decidedly different. Neoliberalism is a self-proclaimed definition for those who are critical of globalization ideas along with trade unionists. With the desire for a free market economy, neoliberals feel the market price should establish itself, monopolies and cartels should be regulated by state, the economic balance must have equality in opportunities for everyone, there must be social fairness, and the external effects need to be internalized. The opposite can be said for the definition of structural realism, which recognized that any international system should be foremost managed by its own sovereign state, the military power is should always be maximized, national interest is based upon rational unitary actors, and national interests can be defined by the structure of the international system and by internal factors such as public opinion.
Focusing on the differing prevalent ideologies of each, the determinant that is the basis for each definition, is offered in the manner in which we saw the changes in our industrialization from the late 1800s and into the early 20th century. The overall changes in our urban life became the precursor for the definitions and ideas of both neoliberalists and structural realists.
Disadvantages and negative aspects
While the occurrence of urban life covers a world-wide span, there are advantages and disadvantages to such aspects found internally. For example, negative aspects can include the outbreak of more contagious and deadly diseases because of the increase in person to person contact. While the advancement of healthcare and technology has offered a higher propensity for cures and care of such, the adverse effects are substantially increased.
Another negative aspect is the responsiveness to needs. This is inclusive to the increase in migrants relocating to urbanized communities because of the job market. For example, in 1990, the number of minorities that moved to Chicago outweighed the number of jobs available causing many of the newcomers to live unemployed and in total poverty (Pager and Shepherd 192). The cooperation that those with structural realism beliefs pervaded the area and due to the non-provisions for such, the social structure within the city fell to the disastrous social economic classes making those with power behave almost tyrannical. The inequality which is predominant in all society is much more wide ranging in an urban environment. Because of social status, class, and diversity of race, the tendency to establish inner communities within the large community becomes easily established. For example, any larger city such as New York, Los Angeles, and London, all have smaller units of communities within the city limits; all of which are based upon race, religion, and even economic prosperity.
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Advantages and positive aspects
However, the positive aspects include an advancement within the infrastructure of a city. With technology such as transportation, community becomes a wider ranging opportunity as people can socialize even while living within an urban environment which can be separated by many miles. Access to entertainment, health care, emergency services, and schools are also positive aspects to urban life.
Factors that facilitate growth of our cities over time include those aspects of physical, social, and political changes. These changes such as population increase, changes in industry, changes in the physical structure of the land in which a city resides upon, changes in government, and changes in the actual type of people who inhabit said city. Type can include such facets as intellect, social standing, ethical and moral ideologies, as well as race, gender, socioeconomic status, and sexual preference. All of these enhance city growth. Using the jelly donut analogy, it can certainly be easy to see how the growth because of population can spread.
A comparison of neoliberalism and neorealism
In comparing and contrasting (learn how to write a comparative essay) these factors, and looking back through history, the life in an early city versus the life in a modern city those facets for change can certainly provide the attribution for growth. From the early industrial age when cities first became popular and populated, we can see how the population growth caused changes in the functionality of how a city was run. Early days, the government control was not as expansive nor was it accommodative as it is today. For example, the changes in policies, laws, and procedures were created in order to keep a city running through all legalities and mannerisms so that control was facilitated. This was less of a factor during the early years of city development, but much needed as the growth of cities began expanding.
However, such governmental control pervades the division of a social class structure which immediately during the early years began dividing. The poor stayed poor while those of wealth continued to grow in riches, and middle class economics go virtually unaddressed. The diversity between social classes began to separate even further as cities grew larger and larger. The significances in the growth and expansion of the smaller established colonial cities into what society today relates as large urban or metropolitan areas. These changes have created a numerous number of positive attributes which include expansion of import and exporting goods, economic growth and stability, and cultural development, have created a pattern of social separation. From the early settlements established during the 1700 when colonization in the U.S. began, the growth of coastal villages into major cities brought about a huge change in the social status of community life. Because the increase in work drew more people into these urban areas, “quality of life began to deteriorate, and poverty and exploitation became rampant” (Macionis and Parrillo 84).
The political, economic, social, biological, and cultural aspects of society reestablished due to the socioeconomic stratification and inequality, or neoliberalism that was failed to be acknowledge ignored the consolidation of parameters exists therefore, it is unrealistic to analyze the consequences of any single characteristic, such as socioeconomic status, without weighing the impacts that other parameters have on that characteristic. For example, a poor white protestant family will have more ability for social mobility than a poor Indian Muslim family. The assumption that the experiences of the concentrated poverty stricken are the same regardless of the other parameters is misguided, but other parameters in solutions for decreasing inequality and stratification in society are essentially ignored by those who subscribe to structural realism beliefs.
The ideas that are incorporated into new urbanism, such as mixed income housing, bringing the tax base back into the city, and walkability have the ability to differentiate cities economically, racially, and occupationally as well as creating more environmentally sustainable cities. Mixed income housing will allow the disparaged to keep their homes within the city, while getting access to livable wages and better options, such as food and public services, and bringing middle and upper class people back into the city. This will bring the tax base back into the city and create interest convergence, the idea that the rich will make institutional changes that help the poor because those changes also help the more well off, which will increase the opportunities for the poor.
Another benefit to believing in neoliberalism is the idea that different people on the socioeconomic and class hierarchy could be forced to interact more regularly, which will help quell the stereotypes and ethnocentrism that is created by the consolidation of class, income, race, etc. The main idea of neoliberalism is to create more involved communities globally. By creating a society where inhabitants work, live, and play, people will become less stringent in their stereotypes and more cosmopolitan. Essentially, if people would ascribe to the neoliberal way of thinking, the implementation of equality would prevail in the fashion that it was meant to, given way to less need for laws that forcefully establish more equality because greater equality will be found naturally.
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Baylis, John, Smith, Steve, and Owens, Patricia. Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Macionis, John J. and Parrillo, Vincent N. “Chapter 3: The Development of North America Cities.” Cities and Urban Life. 6th ed. Upper Saddle Creek, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc., 2013, pp. 55-85.
Pager, Devah and Shepherd, Hana. “The Sociology of Discrimination: Racial Discrimination in Employment, Housing, Credit, and Consumer Markets.” Annual Review of Sociology, vol. 1, no. 34, pp. 181-209.